LiDAR is an acronym for Light Detection And Ranging. It can functionally be defined as the integration of three technologies into one system which is capable of acquiring data to generate digital elevation models. The three technologies that are combined create digital elevation models are lasers, inertial navigation systems and, the global positioning system.
LiDAR mapping, therefore, refers to the actual usage of of remote sensing technology to create high resolution maps. These digital elevation maps are created by LiDAR equipment usually stationed in aircrafts. This technology is applied in most fields such as geography, archaeology, and seismology.
This optical remote sensing technology measures the characteristics of scattered light and data of distant targets. The distance to a target or object is measured using time delay between pulses that are transmitted and the consequent signals which are reflected and perceived.
LiDAR uses much shorter electromagnetic wavelengths which are visible and close in range to infrared. Therefore, it is possible to capture image of objects or features which are among the same size as a wavelength. LiDAR equipped gadgets such as robots have capability to construct maps and by pass obstacles.
Currently, significant imagined of both mit and physical processes that form landscape have been made possible by the ability of LiDAR to detect topographic boasts. These features include river terraces and channel banks. This has led to advancement in the field of geomorphology. In addition, this technology can measure the elevation of land surface especially under vegetation canopy. It can also resolve the spatial derivatives of aspects such as elevation and changes in elevation between subsequent surveys.
In business, LiDAR mapping is applied to several ways. First, it can be used to carry out ground survey for certain estate developers. Airborne LiDAR survey is a quick and effective way of obtaining accurate typographic data in urban and rural areas. This info is used by engineers and town planners to plan development projects and facilities.
LIDAR mapping also facilitates oil and gas surveys. The oil industry is determined by time sensitive data relating to particular positions of terrain in order to undertake exploration programs.
Hydrologists also work with this technology to predict the extent of floods and plan intervention strategies. Hydrologists can map heavy chance areas for on the road of analyzing flood risks and formulation of protection hints. This process is referred to as flood risk mapping.
LiDAR surveys furthermore suitable for generating accurate elevation data for construction of brand new infrastructure and engineering projects. This may be important during wanting. In addition, it can provide by engineers to model scenarios selecting the best area for construction.
LiDAR can even detect cloud particles and aerosols in atmosphere. This helps make it useful in conducting atmospheric research and studying weather.
There are companies and academic institutions that support the job of collecting, processing and archiving LiDAR data sets. Such organizations collect and distribute the LiDAR data for objective of research and education. This results are very useful associated with fields of geoscience and ecology.