One type of paper tape punch
The earliest forms of punched tape come from [weaving] looms and embroidery, where cards with simple instructions about a machine's intended movements were first fed individually as instructions, then controlled by instruction cards, and later were fed as a string of connected black-jack cards. (See Jacquard loom).
This resulted in the concept of communicating data not to be a stream of individual cards, only one 'continuous card', or a tape. Many professional embroidery operations still refer individuals individuals who create the designs and machine patterns as 'punchers', even though punched cards and paper tape were eventually phased out, after many years of use, in the 1990s.
In 1846 Alexander Bain used punched tape to deliver telegrams.
Data was represented along with presence or absence of any hole in the particular situation. Tapes originally had five rows of holes for data. Later tapes had 6, 7 and 8 rows. A row of narrower holes ('sprocket holes') that were always punched served to feed the tape, typically by using a wheel with radial pins called a 'sprocket wheel.' Text was encoded in many ways. The earliest standard character encoding was Baudot, which dates to be able to the nineteenth century with 5 slots. Later standards, such as Teletypesetter (TTS), Fieldata and Flexowriter, had 6 rips. In the early 1960s, the American Standards Association led a project to create universal code for data processing, which became referred to ASCII. This 7-level code was adopted by some teleprinter users, including AT&T (Teletype). Others, such as Telex, stayed with Baudot.
The word 'Wikipedia' as 7-bit ASCII (without a parity bit or with 'space' parity)
Most tape-punching equipment used solid punches to create holes in the tape. This process inevitably creates 'chads', or small circular pieces of paper. Managing the disposal of chads was an annoying and complex problem, currently being the tiny paper pieces any distressing tendency to escape and obstruct the other electromechanical features the teleprinter equipment.
One variation on the tape punch was a system called a Chadless Printing Reperforator. This machine would punch a received teleprinter signal into tape and print the solution on it at replacing time, utilizing a printing mechanism similar specific of a consistent page laser printer. The tape punch, compared to punching the actual usual round holes, would instead punch little U-shaped cuts in paper, to create sure no chads would be produced; the 'hole' nonetheless filled with a little paper trap-door. By not fully punching out the hole, the printing on the paper remained intact and legible. This enabled operators to browse the tape with out to decipher the holes, which would facilitate relaying the message on option station the actual world network. Also, of course, there had not been 'chad box' to empty from time to time. A disadvantage of this mechanism was that chadless tape, once punched, did not roll up well, seeing that the protruding flaps of paper would become popular the next layer of tape, consequently could halt rolled up tightly. Another disadvantage, observed on tv appliances over time, was generally there was no reliable to help read chadless tape by optical means employed by later high-speed readers. However, the mechanical tape readers used divorce lawyers atlanta standard-speed equipment had no issue with chadless tape, although it sensed the holes by way of of blunt spring-loaded sensing pins, which easily pushed the paper flaps out of the way.
Paper tape relay operation at FAA's Honolulu flight service station in 1964
Punched tape was used as how of storing messages for teletypewriters. Operators typed in the message on the paper tape, and then sent the solution at highest line speed from the tape.
This permitted the operator to prepare the message 'off-line' at the operator's best typing speed, and permitted the operator to correct any error prior to transmission. A reliable operator could prepare a note at 135WPM (Words Per Minute) or higher for short periods.
The line typically operated at 75WPM, but it operated continuously. By preparing the tape 'off-line' and then sending the content with a tape reader, the line could operate continuously compared to depending on continuous 'on-line' typing with single user. Typically, a single 75WPM line supported three much more teletype operators working especially well known.
Tapes punched at the receiving end could provide to relay messages to a new station. Large store and forward networks were developed using fat loss programs.
Software on paper tape for the Data General Nova minicomputer.
When the earliest minicomputers were being released, most manufacturers turned for the existing mass-produced ASCII teletypewriters (primarily the ASR33) as being a low-cost solution for keyboard input and printer product. As a side effect punched tape became a popular medium for low cost storage, that's why was common to find a range of tapes containing useful programs divorce lawyers atlanta minicomputer setups. Faster optical readers were also common.
In the 1970s, computer-aided manufacturing equipment often used paper tape. Paper tape was a somewhat important storage medium for computer-controlled wire-wrap machines, for example. A paper tape reader was smaller and a lot of less expensive than hollerith card or magnetic tape readers. Premium black waxed and lubricated long-fiber papers, and PET film 'paper' tape came to be so that production tapes for these appliances would keep going longer.
Paper tape was the basis of the Vernam cipher, invented in 1917. The particular last third of the twentieth century, the U.S. National Security Agency used punched paper tape to distribute cryptographic ideas. The 8-level paper tapes were distributed under strict accounting controls and were read a new fill device, such whilst the hand held KOI-18, ended up being temporarily associated with each security device that needed new keys. NSA has been trying in order to this method with the more secure electronic key management system (EKMS), but paper tape is apparently still being used.
Fanfold paper tape.
The three biggest problems with paper tape were:
Reliability. It was common practice to follow each mechanical copying of a tape with a manual hole by hole comparison.
Rewinding the tape was difficult and prone to problems. Great care was needed so that you can tearing the tape. Some systems used fanfold paper tape rather than rolled paper tape. Over these systems, no rewinding was necessary nor were any fancy supply reel, takeup reel, or tension arm mechanisms required; the tape merely fed from the provision tank through the reader into the takeup tank, refolding itself back into the exact same form as when has been created fed into the reader.
Low information density. Datasets much bigger a few dozen kilobytes are impractical to handle in paper tape framework.
Paper tape does have some useful properties:
Longevity. Although a lot of magnetic tapes have deteriorated over period for the point that information on them has been irretrievably lost, punched tape can be read many decades later, if printed on Acid free . Some paper can rapidly degrade.
Human obtain. The hole patterns can be decoded visually if necessary, and torn tape could be repaired (using special all-hole pattern tape splices). Editing text on a punched tape was achieved by literally cutting and pasting the tape with scissors, glue, or by taping through section to note all holes and making new holes using a manual hole punch.
Magnetic field immunity. Within a machine shop full of powerful electric motors, the numerical control programs actually survive the magnetic fields generated by those magnetic generators.
Punched tape in art
A computing or telecommunications professional depicted in the Monument into the Conquerors of Space in Moscow (1964) holds what appears staying a punched tape with three rows of rectangular holes.
Chad (the little pieces of paper punched out of your tape).
Zygalski (Perforated) sheets - a system used to decrypt messages enciphered on German Enigma machines.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Papertape
^ Microprocessor-based Control Systems by Naresh Kumar Sinha Page 264: 'Paper tape is well matched to a piece of equipment shop environment whereas magnetic tape possibly be accidentally erased or contaminated by foreign substances. . Other disadvantages of paper tape are the following .'
^ 'computer programming punch paper tape': 'Factory computer numerical control (CNC) equipment used paper tape well into the 1980s'
ECMA-10: ECMA standard for Data Interchange on Punched Tape
A song mentioning paper tape
Various punched media
Friden Flexowriter combination typewriter, paper tape punch, and paper tape reader, put together by IBM throughout the 1940s and bought out by Friden in morrison a pardon 1950s (Retrieved April 10, 2007)
Detailed description of two paper tape code systems, Baudot code and this used using the ILLIAC computer
Paper data storage media
Writing on papyrus (c.3000BCE) Paper (105CE)
Punched tape (1846) Book music (1863) Ticker tape (1867) Piano roll (1880s) Punched card (1890) Edge-notched card (1896) Optical mark recognition Optical character recognition (1929) Barcode (1948) Paper disc (2004)
Categories: Computer storage tape mediaHidden categories: Articles lacking sources from November 2009 ; All articles lacking sources
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